Saturday evening, 7 July 2012 , had a tinge of sadness to it. It was Tamara Rojo’s last performance with the Royal Ballet , as she becomes the new artistic director of the English National Ballet. The evening was a tribute to Frederick Ashton with ‘Birthday Offering’ to music by Glazunov, and a ballet inspired by Turgenev’s play, ‘A Month in the Country’ , which reminded us of the beauty of Ashton choreography, inspired, I believe, by Bournonville and Fokine. The evening finale came with ‘Les Noces’ by Nijinsky’s sister, Bronislava Nijinska. The specter of the old Russia was an ‘absent presence’ .
‘Birthday Offering’ premiered at the 25th birthday celebration on 5 May, 1956, of the Sadler’s Wells Ballet. A few months later the company was granted a Royal Charter and became the Royal Ballet. Its ballerinas included Violetta Elvin, Beryl Grey, Nadia Nerina, Svetlana Beriosova, Elaine Fifield. They each performed Aurora in one week.
Frederick Ashton revived ‘Birthday Offering’ in 1968 for Nureyev and Fonteyn. Here we see a slightly bemused Fonteyn in rehearsal with Frederick Ashton. Nureyev actually knocks Fonteyn over in the last pose, to which Frederick Ashton dryly responds, ‘Shall we do it again, Margot?’ When I was about 14, I actually met Frederick Aston, who took me backstage to meet the ballerinas. I was dressed in a Danish blue dress with bright red shoes with little heels. He told me that he just worked there, but that he liked my red shoes. I wondered how he knew all the leading ballerinas. It gradually dawned on me who he was when I examined my programme afterwards.
Here are three of the currently leading ballerinas of the Royal Ballet, again dancing Aurora from Petipa’s, ‘Sleeping Beauty:
Here Tamara Rojo is partnered by Rupert Pennefather:
Marianela Nunez partnered by Thiago Soares;
Here are Makarova and Dowell dancing ‘A Month in the Country’. This is Ashton’s final masterpiece which premiered in 1976, after he had ceded his directorship of the Company to Kenneth Macmillan in 1970. It is to music by Chopin.
In the performance I saw,’Natalia Petrovna’ was danced by Zenaida Yanowsky,and the dashing tutor by Rupert Pennefather: Here is Yanowsky performing in the Ballroom of Buckingham Palace. Her partner is Robert Bolle.
To continue to focus on Ashton’s beauty, here is a clip from his ‘Romeo and Juliet’. What is seen most frequently today is Kenneth Macmillan’s version:
Ashton’s ‘Romeo and Juliet’ danced by the Royal Danish Ballet:
The same scene choreographed by Kenneth Macmillan featuring Alessandra Ferri:
‘Les Noces’ (1923)
‘Les Noces’ is one of the most striking and innovative compositions in the repertoire of ballet. As Stephanie Jordon writing in the programme says, ‘…[it] still looks like no other dance made before or since, way beyond established traditions of movement vocabulary and construction.’. Straviinsky’s score using four pianos, percussion and a vocal chorus celebrates the mechanisation and industrialization of the new Russia or at least its aspirations. Yet, something ancient and traditionally Russian interrupts these rhythms but is distorted by them.
Using the simplicity of the narrative, Stravinsky created his own text , derived mainly from the Pyotr Vasilyevich Kireyevsky collection of traditional wedding texts, just as he went to traditional wedding scores for his basic melodic material. ‘[S]temming from the discovery that Russian folk song distorted the spoken stress of the word’, Stravinsky was free ‘to give words new value as sounds beyond and separate from their original meaning’.
‘The text is both sacred and profane, dealing with both the sacramental solemnity and the procreative imperatives of the wedding rite.’ ‘There are blessings and invocations to saints [...] references to the combing of hair, to a conversation between berries [... ] to swans and geese [...] and during the Wedding Feast increasing talk about wine and beer and the culmination in ritual sex.’ [Above from programme notes by Stephanie Jordan]
The artistic influences are said to be several. The first is Russian Constructivist Art which used geometric shapes in abstract designs and borrowed from Cubism:
Next was the work of Natalia Goncharova, who designed the costumes for ‘Les Noces’;
The third influence was the innovative choreography of Nijinska’s brother, Vaslav Nijinsky, in such works as ‘The Rrite of Spring’ and ‘L’apres-midi d’un Faun’. Here is a clip from ‘Rite’ which reveals a choreographic homage in ‘Noces’:
Bronislava Najinska (1891-1972):
Nijinska was in Russia between 1914 and 1921. ‘Separated from her brother, she made her first dances, and under the era’s avant-garde painting and theatre wrote her first treatise, ‘The School and Theatre of Movement’. ‘Here she challenged the art of ballet as she knew it and laid out her plans for training a new kind of dance artist.’ (Programme notes by Lynn Garafola) Having spent most of 1918 in Moscow, Nijinska returned to Kiev until the outbreak of the October Revolution. In February 1919, just after the birth of her son, Lev, she opened a School of Movement in Kiev.
Nijinska joined Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in 1921. But Diaghilev made her wait two years before he allowed her to make ‘Les Noces’. She did justice to the life she had left behind in Russia, ‘ -with its hunger, utopian promise, and seemingly endless creative possibility’ . (Lynn Garafola )
Nijinska, according to her own words, ‘was only a women’. She struck a note for women’s liberation in ‘Les Noces’ with the ten- foot plaits of her peasant bride, which symbolised the marriage as a type of bondage.
The Royal Ballet revival of ‘Les Noces’ is the only revival actually created by Bronislava Nijinska. Most others are restaged by her daughter, Irina, after her mother’s death. In 1966, Frederick Ashton invited Nijinska to the Royal Ballet just a few years before her death. Her recreation of her old ballet met with wide acclaim and is the authentic piece. [There is a documentary film of Nijinska teaching the Royal Ballet 'Les Noces': Svetlana Beriosova was the bride.]
Finally, a bit of Beriosova’s dancing: